The Library holds the personal papers of a number of people who played a key role in research on the Australian flora. In some cases they also lodged significant collections of specimens in the National Herbarium of Victoria. The archives include material from:
- Jim Willis (1910–1995), botanist and staff member of the National Herbarium of Victoria from 1939 to 1972. A complete guide to Jim Willis' papers is available from the Australian Science and Technology Heritage Centre.
- Ilma Stone (1913–2001), a botanist renowned for her contribution to moss taxonomy.
- Cliff Beauglehole (1920–2002), a committed conservationist from Portland who collected over 50,000 specimens from all over Victoria.
- Marion and John Simmons, who collected, painted and photographed Australian Acacias.
- Bill Woelkerling, a world expert on coralline red algae, donated a collection of over 9,000 reprints about algae.
The Library is also the repository of the archives of the Australian Systematic Botany Society.